Adventure Travel Guide Qualifications & Performance Standard – III. Definitions

Adventure Travel
Adventure travel is a type of tourism, involving exploration or travel with perceived (and possibly actual) risk, and potentially requiring specialized skills and physical exertion. Adventure tourism has grown in recent decades, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations, but measurement of market size and growth is hampered by the lack of a clear operational definition. According to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature.

Adventure Travel Guide
A guide with a general knowledge of a variety of skill competencies (i.e. interpretive, medical and sustainability) required to facilitate a group of clients through a range of terrains, environments and locales in a safe, manageable and respectable manner.

Guides work for adventure tourism companies, resorts, parks, lodges or campgrounds, or they operate their own small businesses. They facilitate the opportunity to experience a diverse range of activities, depending on the season and on their skills. An adventure travel guide must have a tolerance for adversity and uncertainty. They should possess a strong sense of self-awareness and be able to exercise sound judgment and decision making. An adventure travel guide is highly flexible and has strong communication skills (sometimes involving multiple languages).

Key differences between an Adventure Travel Guide and an Adventure Activity Provider include the Guide’s need to have equal attention to technical, medical, customer service, content delivery, and sustainability competencies, versus the activity provider’s main requirement is a mastery in technical competency.

ALS
Abbreviation for advanced life support.

Authentic (tourism)
A tourism experience, which provides a genuine perspective and interaction with natural and cultural locations and contexts.  Clients may also derive a sense of personal authenticity through their experiences.

Competency
In this standard, the term ‘competency’ is used to refer to combination of knowledge, skill, behavior, personal traits, and motives of the individual. The ISO Adventure Travel Safety standard defines competency as follows: “The ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve expected results (results of performed activities in provision of service).

CPR
CPR is the abbreviation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed and has no pulse and has stopped breathing; attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen. This may happen after an electric shock, heart attack, or drowning. CPR combines rescue breathing and chest compressions.

Certification
The holder of a medical certification is able to competently complete and administer care to a patient, usually by passing an examination and/or completing an approved emergency care medical study program.

Some professional certifications also require that one obtain work experience in a related field before the certification can be awarded. Some professional certifications are valid for a lifetime upon completing all certification requirements. Others expire after a certain period of time and must be maintained with further education and/or testing.

Certifications can differ within a profession by the level or specific area of expertise to which they refer. For example, in the field of Wilderness Medicine, there are different certifications available for Wilderness First Aid, Wilderness First Responder, Wilderness EMT and Wilderness Paramedic.

Cultural History
Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history in examining popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people.

Customer service
Customer service is the integration of a guide’s technical and social skills in such a manner each customer feels recognized andacknowledged in his/her personal needs.

Definitive care
Completed therapy; end point at which all treatment required at the time has occurred. The completion of recommended treatment.

Duty to act
Duty to act refers to duty of a party to take necessary action to prevent harm to another party or the general public.

Ecosystem
An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system.

Ecology
Ecology is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions with their environment. It also deals with the growth of populations and species in an ecosystem and when/how resources in that ecosystem are used by organisms within it.

Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the relationships that exist between peoples and plants.

Folklore
Folklore is the traditional beliefs, customs, and stories of a community, passed through the generations by word of mouth. A body of popular myths or beliefs relating to a particular place, activity, or group of people.

Group management
The process by which a guide provides a safe and high quality experience, supporting a range of client motivations, interests and skill levels. The art of providing individualized experience for all within a group.

ICRC/International Red Cross: The International Committee of the Red Cross is an impartial, neutral and independent organization whose exclusively humanitarian mission is to protect the lives and dignity of victims of armed conflict and other situations of violence and to provide them with assistance. The ICRC also seeks to prevent suffering by promoting and strengthening humanitarian law and universal humanitarian principles.

Indigenous People
Indigenous people are genetically, historically, and culturally from or linked to the original or first nations of the land before colonization. They normally preserve a degree of cultural and political separation from the mainstream culture and political system of the nation state within the border of which the indigenous group is located.

Interpretation
“Interpretation is a mission-based communication process that forges emotional and intellectual connections between the interests of the audience and the meanings inherent in the resource.”
—The National Association for Interpretation3

“Interpretation enriches our lives through engaging emotions, enhancing experiences and deepening understanding of people, places, events and objects from past and present.”
—The Association for Heritage Interpretation4

ISO
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental membership organization and the world’s largest developer of voluntary International Standards.

Protocol
The planned regulations for carrying out a patient’s treatment regimen or dealing with any type of medical emergency formality, precedence, and etiquette as defined by a general consensus of medical specialists ie; WMS.

Natural History
Natural history is the research and study of organisms including plants or animals in their environment. Natural history is the systematic study of any category of natural objects or organisms.

Remote
Situated at a one hour distance or more away from ALS, advance medical care or definitive care.

Standard First Aid
Standard First Aid incorporates all of Emergency First Aid and is designed for those who require a more in-depth understanding of first aid including: legal implications of first aid treatment, spinal injuries, heat or cold injuries, bone and joint injuries, chest injuries, and medical emergencies. Includes CPR-C certification.

Sustainability
Sustainability is the endurance of natural and cultural systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.  From a sustainable tourism business perspective sustainability can be thought of as a balance of ‘people, planet, profit.’

Technical abilities
Personal experience and capabilities to execute the technical skills.

Technical skills
A set of competencies necessary to guide a group safely through varying areas and climates. These competencies must be trained and assessed by certified professionals.

Theme
A succinct, central message about a topic of interest that a guide wants to communicate to their audience.

Thematic interpretation
In the thematic approach, a guide relies on a central theme (i.e., a major point or message) to guide the process of communication.  The guide develops the theme in such a way that it will be highly relevant to an audience.

Topic
See Theme above.

Tour Leader
Tour Leaders ensure that a tour runs smoothly. Tour leaders are often chosen for their travel experience and interpersonal skills. They should be thoroughly trained and eager to educate people on a variety of natural and cultural skills. Basic duties of a tour leader include providing comprehensive briefings at the start and throughout the tour, and ensuring that health and safety best practices are followed. A tour leader position can be filled by a professional guide, however, these roles are not interchangeable.

Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician:
(WEMT) is the second highest level of wilderness emergency medical training available in the USA and abroad, second to Wilderness Advanced Life Support (WALS) or other courses for advanced providers such as AWLS (Advanced Wilderness Life Support), WUMP (Wilderness Upgrade for Medical Professionals), WMPP (Wilderness Medicine for Professional Practitioner), and RMAP (Remote Medicine for Advanced Providers). In addition to an urban EMT-Basic course, WEMT places a greater emphasis on long-term patient care in the backcountry where conventional hospital care can take days to reach. Some of the main providers of Wilderness EMT training in the United States include SOLO, the Wilderness Medicine Institute at (National Outdoor Leadership School), Wilderness Medical Associates (WMA), Aerie Backcountry MedicineCenter for Wilderness Safety, and Remote Medical International.

Wilderness First Aid
(WFA) is the specific discipline of First aid which relates to care in remote areas, where emergency medical services will be difficult to obtain or will take a long time to arrive.

Wilderness First Responder
Wilderness First Responder (72-80 hour course) certification is both a higher certification than a Wilderness First Aid (16-20 hour course) certification, and may also be used to upgrade an Emergency Medical Technician to a Wilderness Emergency Medical TechnicianOutdoor Emergency Careis a National Ski Patrol certification, but it doesn’t fully meet the requirements for a WFR certification.[11]

Wilderness Medicine
Wilderness medicine encompasses the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of injuries and medical conditions that may occur during activities in remote territories.

It is also defined as a medical emergency which takes place in a wilderness or remote setting which is at least 60 minutes away from definitive care (hospital, clinic, etc.) and present unique challenges that may require specialized skills, treatment techniques, and knowledge in order to manage the patient for an extended period of time before being evacuated.[1]

Activities that may require wilderness medicine include but are not limited to backpacking, cross-country skiing, mountaineering, white water rafting, scuba diving, and exploration in undeveloped regions such as deserts or jungles. Wilderness medicine has evolved to deal with situations in which definitive medical care is hours or days away, and in which patients may require quick or extended attention. Wilderness medicine utilizes first aid techniques, but requires additional skills that take into account demanding environments, uncommon threats to health, hazardous or lengthy travel to medical facilities, and difficulties in obtaining food, water, and shelter.

Wilderness Medical Society
A society dedicated to the enriching and advancement in addition to management of wilderness medical practices of The Wilderness Medical Society was created on 15 February 1983 by three physicians from California, United States — Dr. Paul Auerbach, Dr. Ed Geehr, and Dr. Ken Kizer.[1] It provides advice and guidance to medical personnel working in wilderness or backcountry environments. It also publishes Wilderness & Environmental Medicine Journal,[2][3] Wilderness Medicine Magazine,[4][5] and Practice Guidelines for Wilderness Emergency Care.[6]

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